| The difference (between character device and block device) comes down to | whether the device accesses data randomly — in otherwords, whether the | device can seek to one position from another.
| The block is an abstraction of the filesystem — filesystems can be | accessed only in multiples of a block.Although the physical device is | addressable at the sector level, the kernel performs all disk operations in | terms of blocks.
| the kernel (as with hardware and the sector) needs the block to be a power | of two.The kernel also requires that a block be no larger than the page size.
| The purpose of a buffer head is to describe this mapping between the | on-disk block and the physical in-memory buffer (which is a sequence of bytes | on a specific page).
| the kernel does not issue block I/O requests to the disk in the order they | are received or as soon as they are received.
| Both the process scheduler and the I/O scheduler virtualize a resource | among multiple objects.
I/O schedulers perform two primary actions to minimize seeks: merging and sorting. a) Merging is the coalescing of two or more requests into one. Consequently, merging requests reduces overhead and minimizes seeks.
| b) The entire request queue is kept sorted, sectorwise, so that all seeking | activity along the queue moves (as much as possible) sequentially over the | sectors of the hard disk.This is similar to the algorithm employed in | elevators —— try to move gracefully in a single direction.
#. Linus Elevator: The Linus Elevator I/O scheduler performs both front and back merging. #. The Deadline I/O scheduler: ensure that write requests do not starve read requests. #. The Anticipatory I/O scheduler aims to continue to provide excellent read latency, but also provide excellent global throughput. #. The Complete Fair Queuing (CFQ) I/O scheduler is an I/O scheduler designed for specialized workloads, but that in practice actually provides good performance across multiple workloads.It is now the default I/O scheduler in Linux(2.6). #. the Noop I/O Scheduler truly is a noop, merely maintaining the request queue in near-FIFO order, from which the block device driver can pluck requests.